By: Mohamed M. Muse
Somalia has never been having a stable state-owned by its peoplesince January 1991 following fall of the central government. Fighting had been between rivals of warlords and clan based militias. The fighting had led extreme hunger with widely spread across the country. Regional and international intervention efforts that were attempted over the past 25 years had certainly not been that much successful to tackle the recurrent crisis, rather somehow is believed to have been contributed. Recent decade from 2006 to 2012, so called Islamic group extended its controls most part of the country including the capital with fear and violence, even though some parties including Puntland is relatively stable. Its seemsa diverge interest, mainly driving by locals, regional, and national put everything around the public interest at the last point to discuss which put in a situation which they completely desperate from their own home country and displaced – almost 30% of the population. Reports suggested emergencies and humanitarian assistance aimed to Somalis seems not been coordinated together in way to famine and disaster response over the decades. Civilians became the prime victims, living conditions remain misfortune, though people have found ways to get by without a government. But, shockingly there are political billionaires, making all that benefits from risen steadily political confusion over decades.The following part of the article would like to label the invisible hand which too often is the market forces which ensures efforts of individuals acting in pursuit of their own self-interest made society as a whole better off.
- Why is Concerned
Since the above mentioned period, it was to heargreediness notion regarding is which political representatives (especially a called government officials) have hastymade self-interests and could came to what maydamageemotion of being a genuine public servants, and besides, the knowledge of selfishness could alsodamages the minds and spread through cultural phenomena. There are concerns that there may be a link between an apparent rise recently in mental greedy and healthiness concerns in futuristic and taking sides with market forces driving by personal gains which have nothing to do with all internal affairs.
Let ustake example that in my opinionwe should not anticipatefrom any other one to build for your own home (country) which shares by everyone to live in, to enjoy it, to work and move freely without further threat and fear. Similarly, we should have to expect that any other capacity (say others government) can protect your country and people from both internal and external threats except that of your own people and its governmentall onboard general protection. If all those elements have beenaware and have trusted interstices, why should have to plead, why they part of the problems and also reasons that so many citizens have to die because of their personal conclusive actions.
As gabs resulted by thedevoid ofphysical Somali government, almost all the leaders could be described for trying to get heads around with potential impact of the country by leading “selfishness culture”. Whenpeople aren’t worrying over thatselfishness, say for example about their psychological well-being, they’re talking about digital selfishness, particularly when it comes to teenage people.
Assume that self-interest encourages by preoccupation with self-image and that this intensified by elimination facilities and filters that allow individuals to present their best interest at the front. The result of this process, ideologicalargument can say is general sadness with the leaders because this make us focus on what’s bad about how we gain our weaknesses, our faults, andlimitations.
Altogetherit can put question mark really when signing agreements with international government or companies, perhaps just because personal gainsratherthan that of the peopletosignify generally without given consideration involving the right signatories from the right and legal institutions. Thus, such kind of actionsdo clearly indicateselfishness posting danger and will be complex activity that can produce different reactions on such particular contexts, positions, and how it was received by the citizens (audience). It would have to be understand that there’s no single ridiculous man/government who can give you a million of dollars without further future consideration ofgains. Very well remembered of proverb say ‘’ give and take’’ that can explain the meaning of all market exchange forces.
Effects of selfishness, somebody going to be rich through corruption while the other vulnerable community could be dying due to starvation, hunger, and thirst while the head-to-head contracts withcompanies to tranquil national economy which’s the strongest backbone of the economy is categoricallyto be at stake. Why not as a leader (s)to take responsibility bit further to ensure people receives at least the required services while still there are many even don’t go to schools and universities, rather they carry a heavy machine guns and participating the fight.
- Business as usual
It has to be predicted that dollars willremain to flow permanently into the mouths of theevil actors – say political bikes and civil servant officers. Crisis remains direct product and preoccupy of the country. Civilians, mainly women and children to continue to severe, died, hurts, and eventually revenue will continue to be reduced from the public pursuance by two third in the next decades. There could be no direct will on genuine citizensfor all unacceptable behaviors from the front-runners or any other potential involvements if any to do so, of course there would be.
Take an example from the investors, normally they try to get reliable information about entering new locations for their biggest needs. Thereof, the biggest challenge is often how to access information they need to help them make decisions. The question here iswho provides that information on behalf of the public or say government. Who brokered the business to come into effect? Accept that there’s no big companies which made investment into this country but still there are small to medium scale category of companies but with little investments brokered by top leaders and because of their own benefit of their positions only that very short time without thinking beyond the box to relay the development of the country in a forward post. Also guess if would the government could be the investment promotion, intermediate, and make good facilitation and opportunities to its people, it would have been to believe that everything could have been settled already.
Sound of encouragement to persuadepatience can be a power while people have the capabilities and attitudes to changerounds and ever would have chosen a leader (s) thatshould be considered in theirpast counts and backgrounds (vetting), on how they bargained on behalf of the public, what they brought into the publiccourtesy, how many schools were built, howagricultural projects being premeditated, and improved, livestock protection strategies were put in place, river water controls (dams) have been excavated. Effective force strategy to maintain the peace and order should have beendeveloped. Why allthese being
underestimatedthe extent of the increased frustration in the large parts of the
country. There would have been believe leader (s) caused, especially politicians with other nationalities, and left the country may say since 1990’s to the recent decades, and began to stagnate well before the right principles, and made no recovery rather made the situation of the country evenworse. Guess becauseof two nationalities, two passports and just suspect that some of them may have a third. No matter either to have two or third, but just these could be regarded a world citizens but the only way every society attached to a particular country is because of their relative values to be respected, and protected them at all the times. Nonetheless, surelySomalis don’t believe, and even don’tunderstandthe values and way of life theyshould be preserved at all cost against the new world, surely one of the worst problem in this country has seemingly been created and exists individually and be a part of a large country too.
A proverb says ‘’ a violent man entices their fellow citizens and leads them down a path that is not good’’.
Poverty and political greed can lead conflict always. How communitiesshare all possible belongs including the common culture (one ethnic) and again have to fight. Reasons could be not because they are not poor, they don’t have opportunitiesfor employment but they have space of land to survive. But it’s so important to understand how considerable political leaders does the likelihood of Somalia’s long civil war. There is likelihood that the representatives manipulated their ethno nationalism to secure their own hold of power (clan tendency). The community themselves, don’t demonstrate to move a bit forward and ask brothers and sisters are failing every day just because of manipulated political powers. Another unfortunate is that Somalis lives like senseless, massacring each other every day with potential displacement (Stewar, 2002).
Leadership is somethingthat’s important to community. A factor that associates with the question is why fighting breaks out always inside, insecurity continues to advance the neighboring states. No theory to tell at this stage but views suggested that all is due to the role of leadership of course where elites manipulates community security dilemma.
- Paths to the conflict
- Incumbent elites seek to defend their power.
- Structural forces drive society to the threshold of conflict and leaders have little to no ability to avoid the outbreak of violence.
- Ethnic groups, arguing that they encourage conflict.
See the civil war in Somalia from 1991, it was described that as result of incumbent seeking to defend their power. The goal was to bring an end the political mobilization that presents now to be part of the threat to the existing structure of power. But again all went into the wrong side. Impending democratization has not been succeeding; respective population has been divided and seemly was mobilized against the interest of others (same community). My argument is thatconflict is believed to have bene cause by medium to long term incentives from leaders to play nationalism card and apparently to secure the power. Community can be encouraged into the conflict through attempts to boost their disappearingof power. Thus, elites could be able to expertly navigate the public discourses to away from political changes towards communal conflict.
The role of political elites in the onset of civil war always involves judgments on where to place responsibility (Lutz F. Krebs). These elites can be put into three categories.
- With the individual leaders,
- With situational forces, or
- Somewhere in between.
In my viewpoint, does greed or grievance as to whether the main cause of conflict (fighting). Only can be ascertain the combination of the two could have been the grounds with political science and economic approaches to prediction of outbreak of fight (civil war). Just to be understoodwhy the world perceives Somalia as a country with excessive political instability during the past two decades ‘’meaning Somalia is another world’’. It’s not stable country; many areas of the country continue to be under self-rule control held by local leaders. The country has around 10.5 million people but many of them are nomads or refugees. Many studies described the establishment of a government in Somalia has been proved to be extremely difficult and still (currently) remains a lawless state (Nwokolo, 2009), though some political improvements have been made since 2012 to 2017.
Some jokes; man wants money to do good things to his own business but with money (Selfish). A doctor refuses to treat a patient if the patient doesnot pay the fee (Greedy). An Indian man has to marry a girl, but will only marry if they can pay him (Cultural issues).
The mythical theme behind this stories is the ambition leads to the excessive greed and diverse issues that can take over the simple life.
- Why Ports Become ThePrime Target
Somalia locates strategic position in the horn of Africa. India is the direct route to Somalia on the sea. All goods and services from India can be delivered direct to Somalia without stopping any other ports (say Dubai). Malaysia the same, Indonesia the same, Oman the same, Pakistan the same, China the same, Japan the same, but why UAE targeting the largest ports of the country. Because UAE is the closest country to Somalia for the port docking, next to Yemen. It could described such as Somali traders transports their goods via UAE ports, but it should be bear in mind that the UAE don’t producemuch of the goods that comesto Somalia space market for sale. Some of the reasons would be is not a kind of investment, is not to be part of a partnership, and is not about a new innovation. But the likelihood would be in the next 10 to 20 years of UAE strategic plan to divert the Somalia’s large economy into UAE. Seemingly they are strategically blockading the open markets in Somalia (ports, airports, and agriculture), fishing, etc. to ensure that this country has never be able to recover from the crisis. Apparently, it may continue to provide dollars to the greedy leaders and public officers of this starving country by understanding these leaders would of course have theirs personal interests first than that public interest. Mostly they have other nationalities as per the ultimate observations is made.
Why all these are so concerned. All the attributes man could be the greed that should be high on the list of things to be avoided. Because it is the root causes of so many negative traits, it goes with hand in hand of all other things, put to prioritize personal needs rather than prioritizing the public needs, and hold leaders completely accountable and responsible of all what’s happing.
It could be sometimes to ask questions and maybe try to understand why Somalis don’t accept trueof their country ‘’being proud for their nationality’’. There would have been the only reason of kind of defense in the new globalization. it could to be understood something to keep the identity and traditions out of strangers, a kind of blockade against any kind of influences from outside of the contexts. Even though it’s not so sure this‘s to be appropriate aggressive action for what it could be mean butcan’t be find something else. Why not earlier to reconcile political problems that more or less in line with self-indulgence approaches which remains a practical task for those who want to understand a social situation that escalates into civil war. This can tell that there may be no realityto make people be proud of this country as ‘’national identity’’, instead only work in organized violence. Why this has to be composed, because of the long-term historical processes and the relative modernity of both greedy from local leaders in this deprived country and organized violence. Why to describe this, because arguments say so difficult that a greedy and corrupted interests to go alone with pro-self-governingsystems. Reaching negotiated peace settlements in Somalia’s civil wars and the efforts to consolidate peace with effective governance have still proven challenges of diverse local, regional, and national interests. Somali leaders mostly don’t reflect lessonslearned the technical knowledge and the practical expertise to build peace in this devastated country. For example Rwanda, there has been serious genocide and recurring violent conflicts that were taken place between 1990s to 2000 which located weak and failing state for Rwanda however, solution that Rwanda adoptedwas generous state practices in economy, democratic politics, truism policies, and rights based approaches to Rule of Law which proven successful for Rwanda. Why then this so beautiful country is still under the hash, putting almost unacceptable level by the rest of the world to receive the country’s status (Charles T. Call and Cedric de Coning, 2017 ).
The system that constrains is the leaderspersistently remain interested not healing the wounds of this prolonged conflicts, continues injustice and indiscriminate killing of civilians. All actions look as if it only ideal at the highest level of personal interest perverted by self-importance. Too often, Somalia’s clan based political leaders have rewarded for practicing the divide political endemic to the ravaged country. Understand that Somali people were to return elected leaders for guidance and moral clarity, however, in a vacuum of moral leadership made by all these fright and war by tempted many Somalis to protect what we can call only ‘’interest’’ and withdraw from national purpose.
All decisions are based incentivized and not on what it could be the right, discourage to put the nation ahead of all other things. Nonetheless, many political leaders (clan based) and their subordinates pressurize and focus on monthly/quarterly earnings and shared prices, at all costs, rather than a moral considerations to reflect value of the people on their silence and support to safe country. The leaders should be morally courageous to reject and rewrite the old rules. People needs leaders who can built school, hospitals, roads, bridges, encourages farmers, and cross the line to bring people all together but not greed and clan based once, putting their personal interest before national interest. Politicians could not be expected to contribute already ravaged, despoiled, and overwhelmed situation and drive the people apart. People need leaders, politicians who can say No to the high rate of exchange language and stands to the right concerns to address the real problems.
The writer is trying express that there will be neither a future nor hope while all the above are happening, nor there be no values to protect unless otherwise we realize the urgency of now.
The great leader Mr. Benjamin Disraeli said ‘’ I must follow the people. Am I not their leader’’. Another great leaderMr. General Montgomery said ‘’ the capacity and the will to rally men and women to a common purpose and the character which inspires confidence’’.
Charles T. Call and Cedric de Coning. (2017 ). Rising Powers and , Peacebuilding, Breaking the Mold? Cham, Switzerland: This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by Springer Nature, The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG, The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland.
Nwokolo, N. N. (2009). From grievance to greed: An analysis of violent conflicts in oil bearing communities in Nigeria ,Financial Markets, adverse shocks and policy responses in fragile countries . ERD-Accra Meeting, 21st -23rd 2009 . Birmingham: http://erd.eui.eu .
Stewar, F. (2002). Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries. Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford OX1 3LA: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.